What monuments appeared in Moscow during the year

April 23
Culture

Even during the period of restrictions associated with the coronavirus pandemic, the work on perpetuating the memory of outstanding figures of the past and significant historical events did not stop in the capital. Over the past year, eight new statues, monuments and memorials were installed in Moscow. On the International Day of Monuments and Historical Sites, we tell you what structures have appeared in the capital.

Monument to Railway Workers -Participants in the Great Patriotic War 

The monument to railway workers -participants in the Great Patriotic War was unveiled last summer for the professional holiday of railway workers. This composition of five figures - a symbol of the front and rear unity - is installed on the garden square territory on Komsomolskaya Square, at the intersection of the main railway lines.

At the monument base, there are five statues on a granite platform. Each of them represents the railway professions, including motorman, linewoman, railway manager, switch woman and railway master. The figures are arranged in a semicircle, and behind them the Order of Victory dominates. On four sides of it there are relief images of repair work on the railway, as well as armored trains and steam locomotives. On the monument itself, you can see the inscription - the words of the commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov: "Without the feat of the railway workers, there would be no Victory for us." The author of the monument is Salavat Shcherbakov - a sculptor, teacher, professor, People's Artist of Russia and a member of the Union of Artists of the USSR.

Monument to Efim Slavsky - the Head of the Nuclear Industry of the USSR

Another monument erected in Moscow last summer is the monument to Efim Slavsky - the head of the Russian nuclear industry and triple Hero of Socialist Labor. The unveiling was timed to coincide with the 75th anniversary of the nuclear industry in Russia. The Minister Slavsky’s bust has been welcoming visitors for several years on the socle level stairs inside the main building of the Rosatom state corporation. The new monument, created by the sculptor Salavat Shcherbakov, was unveiled in the garden square near the central building of the state corporation (Bolshaya Ordynka Street, house 24).

The minister is depicted full-length in a three-piece suit with three stars of the Hero of Socialist Labor on it. The monument is placed on a half-meter granite pedestal.

Efim Slavsky (1898-1991) - the Soviet statesman, specialist in the field of non-ferrous metallurgy, head of the Soviet nuclear industry, triple Hero of Socialist Labor, one of the leaders of the Soviet atomic project, Minister of Medium Machine-Building Industry of the USSR, deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

The Vakhtangov Theater Sculptural Composition

In September, a monument to director, actor and teacher Yevgeny Vakhtangov was unveiled at 26 Arbat Street. The monument is installed in front of the building of the State Academic Theater, which bears his name. In the bronze composition, the director is shown sitting on elevated platform in front of a curtain. Above his bowed head on the curtain are the names of 100 performances staged since the theater foundation that have made the theater famous over the past 100 years, starting with the stage productions of Yevgeny Vakhtangov himself - ‘The Miracle of St. Anthony’ and ‘Princess Turandot’. This is the third monument to Evgeny Vakhtangov in Russia. Its authors are the sculptor Alexander Rukavishnikov - People's Artist of Russia, Maxim Obrezkov - the chief artist of the Vakhtangov Theater, and Igor Voskresensky - Honored Artist of Russia and the Honored Architect of Russia.

Evgeny Vakhtangov (1883-1922) - the founder of the theater movement of fantastic realism, was born in Vladikavkaz and studied at the Vladikavkaz classical gymnasium. There he participated in amateur theatrical groups and continued to play on stage, entering the Moscow University. In 1911, Evgeny Vakhtangov graduated from the theater school and was accepted into the Moscow Art Theater. In 1921, he headed the Third Studio of the Moscow Art Theater, which was then renamed the Evgeny Vakhtangov Theater.

Monument to Sambo Founders

In December, a memorial to the sambo founders in Russia was unveiled at the Luzhniki Olympic Complex Sports Walk of Fame. The names of the coaches of this type of martial arts - Viktor Spiridonov, Vasily Oschepkov and Anatoly Kharlampiev are immortalized in the stone composition. In the center of the composition there are the figures of wrestlers, one of whom turns the opponent over, performing a throw called ‘mill’. The duel takes place on the hemisphere through which the Earth's orbit passes. So the authors depicted the globe, symbolizing the popularity of this kind of sport around the world. On the orbit you can see the motto of the martial arts ‘Sambo is the science of winning’. The wrestle is watched by the sambo founding fathers.

Viktor Spiridonov (1882-1944) created a system of applied wrestling and hand-to-hand fighting based on jiu-jitsu. Vasily Oshchepkov (1893-1937) invented the Soviet version of judo. Anatoly Kharlampiev (1906-1979), a student of Vasily Oschepkov, collected and systematized methods of various types of martial arts. It was thanks to him that sambo as a sports discipline received an official status in the USSR.

The monument is made of bronze and granite. It was created by a team of sculptors under the leadership of the People's Artist of Russia Salavat Shcherbakov.

Monument to Karo Alabyan - the Founder of the Union of Architects of the USSR

Last year, a new monument appeared in Maly Peschany Lane next to house 2. It is a granite base with steps on which Karo Alabyan - the Soviet architect and founder of the Union of Architects of the USSR stands. In his right hand he holds paper sheets with drawings. The sheets are so long and heavy that the architect has to support them with his foot to prevent them from slipping and falling down. Georgy Frangulyan - the sculptor, professor, People's Artist of Russia, member of the Union of Artists of the USSR, as well as Ashot Tatevosyan - artist and designer worked on the creation of this monument.

Karo Alabyan (1897-1959) - Soviet architect, founder of the Union of Architects of the USSR. In 1935, he participated in the development of the general plan for the reconstruction of Moscow. Alabyan's most famous projects are the building of the Central Academic Theater of the Russian Army and the architectural plan of the Krasnopresnenskaya metro station pavilion.

Memorial Sign in Honor of the Division of the Moscow People’s Volunteer Army

In December 2020, on the eve of the anniversary of the beginning of the Soviet counterattack in the Battle of Moscow, the unveiling of the memorial sign of the 6th Moscow Rifle Division of the People's Volunteer Army of the Dzerzhinsk district took place. The wall with a five-pointed star symbolizes the feat of the workers who, without military training, stood up to defend the capital in 1941. About eight thousand people from 170 institutions and enterprises aged from 18 to 55 years joined the division. Almost none of them had ever held a rifle before.

The division of the People's Volunteer Army of the Dzerzhinsk district was formed at the Moscow Institute of Railway Engineers. It included factory workers, employees of the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the USSR, students, and teachers. The division participated in the construction of the Mozhaisk defense line, fought in the area of Dorogobuzh, Vyazma, Yelnya, and reached East Prussia. The monument is located in the Catherine Park. Its author was the architect Alexandra Voskresenskaya.

Bust to Surgeon Viktor Savelyev

In 2020, a bust of the Soviet and Russian surgeon, academician, laureate of the State Prize of the USSR and the State Prize of the Russian Federation Viktor Savelyev was erected on the territory of the Pirogov Clinical Hospital No.1.  It is made of bronze and is located on a three-part base of polished granite. The all-Russian public organization ‘Russian Society of Surgeons’ applied to the commission on monumental art with the initiative to erect a monument to the famous doctor. The authors of the monument are Andrey Balashov - People's Artist of Russia sculptor and Viktor Egerev - People's Architect of the USSR, full member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences, honorary builder of Moscow.

Academician Viktor Savelyev (1928-2013) — the founder of the scientific school, a specialist in the field of angiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and the human cardiovascular system. His name is also associated with achievements in the field of anesthesiology, resuscitation science and intensive care. For more than 30 years, Savelyev served as the Chief Surgeon of the Russian Ministry of Health.

Memorial sign of Protopope Avvakum

A memorial sign in honor of the 400th anniversary of the Old Belief ideologist, the priestly martyr Avvakum Petrov birth was installed on the territory of the spiritual center of the Russian Orthodox Old Belief Church ( Rogozhsky Posyolok street, house 29, building 1).

It is made in the form of a worship pillar with a height of 5.5 meters. On the pillar, Protopope Avvakum, boyar’s wife Morozova, Metropolitan Ambrose and Bishop Pavel Kolomensky are depicted in mosaic execution. The sign is installed in front of the Resurrection of Christ Church in the bell tower of the Rogozhskaya community, opposite the Western Gate of the Rogozhskaya Sloboda. It was decorated according to project of the Archpriest Leonty Pimenov, dean of the Old Belief communities of the Moscow region and rector of the Old Belief Church of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God church in Orekhovo-Zuyevo. It was he who won the competition for the best appearance of the memorial sign in 2019. The architect of the building became Artur Tokarev - the teacher and architectural historian.

Avvakum Petrov - priest, protopope, writer, author of the monument of Russian literature of the XVII century ‘The Life of Protopope Avvakum, Written by Himself’, a number of polemical papers and messages to like-minded people.

The International Day of Monuments and Historical Sites has been celebrated since 1984 on the initiative of the Assembly of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS).

Source: mos.ru

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