The street is like an exhibition. Where Stendhal lived on Znamenka and Pushkin listened to the opera

November 3

Znamenka, one of the oldest streets in Moscow, has existed since the XV century. It received its name in the XVI century in honor of the Church of the Sign of the Most Holy Theotokos, which has not survived to this day. In 1918, Znamenka was renamed Krasnoznamennaya street, since 1925 it had the name of the military commander Mikhail Frunze. The historical name returned to the street only in 1990.

Initially, the town's merchants and artisans settled on Znamenka. During the time of Ivan the Terrible, the highest courtiers began to settle here. In the XVII century, the courtyards of boyars Ivan Shuisky and Ivan Khovansky, prince Ivan Dolgorukov and other notable people adjoined the street, and during the reign of Peter I, his associates Nikita Zotov and Afanasy Vyazemsky lived on Znamenka.

Apraksins — Buturlins Manor: from Baroque to Classicism

Znamenka Street, house 12/2, building 3 (main house); Krestovozdvizhensky Lane, house 2, building 2 (wing)

The manor, in the building of which the Moscow Gnesins Secondary Special Music School is located today, was originally built in the Baroque style. At the beginning of the XVIII century, it was built for the military commander Pyotr Apraksin by an unknown foreign architect.

In 1761, the manor passed to Count Roman Vorontsov. In his days, a part of the premises was rented by a theatrical opera troupe under the direction of the entrepreneurs Giovanni Belmonti and Giuseppe Cinti. The performances were shown in a specially erected wooden annex.

Later, one of the wings was occupied by the Znamensky Opera House of the prince Pyotr Urusov and englishman Michael Meddox. The theater caught the fancy of the audience. Here they could watch Italian and Russian operas. In 1780, a tragedy happened — the theater burned down on the eve of the performance. At that time, the construction of a new building was already underway — the Bolshoi Petrovsky Theater on Neglinka, where the troupe soon moved. The Bolshoi Theater has been standing on this place since 1825, so the Urusov and Meddox Theater is often called its predecessor.

Having survived the fire of 1812, the manor soon changed its appearance. In 1816, it was purchased by Colonel Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. In his days, the building was rebuilt in the Empire style, having added a mezzanine and an eight-column portico of the Ionic order. In 1825, the manor was bought by Privy Councilor Sergei Gagarin. Ivan Turgenev, Nikolai Karamzin and Leo Tolstoy often visited him. It is believed that the latter immortalized this house in the War and Peace and Anna Karenina novels.

Since 1910, the building has been occupied by gymnasiums, after the revolution — by the Revolutionary Military Council. Later there were schools here again. The music school at the Gnesin Institute has been located here since 1962.

I.E. Ponomarev’s mansion: windows with leaves and mascarons

Maly Znamensky Lane, building 11/11, building 1

A corner two-storey house in the eclectic style at the intersection of Znamenka and Maly Znamensky Lane appeared in 1899. Architect Konstantin Burov, who built it for merchant Ivan Ponomarev, tried to make both of its facades interesting and different. Today, passing by, you cant help but stop to take a good look at them.

The corner of the house is cut off and decorated with a fancy bay window at the level of the first floor: the elongated window is framed by pilasters (flat protrusions of the wall in the form of columns) and crowned by a pediment (part of the facade bounded by roof slopes and cornice). In addition, above the window there is a stucco molding in the form of plants and flowers, a mascaron and a cartouche (decorative elements in the form of a mask and a scroll). Between the ground and first floors of the building a frieze in the form of a meander runs — a famous ancient Greek geometric ornament. The windows of the facade facing the Znamenka are decorated in different ways: on the ground floor they are decorated with stucco in the form of a leaf, on the second floor — with male and female mascarons.

Ivan Ponomarev lived in the house for only a year — in 1900 he died. Four years later, the heirs sold the mansion to Grigory Arafelov. In 1913, he commissioned architect Arshak Izmirov to rebuild the old manor house in Maly Znamensky Lane and attach it to the mansion. In the triangular pediment you can see the monogram of Alaferov.

After 1917, the building housed the Communist Academy sections. Now the Library of Natural Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences is located here.

Shamshin's tenement building: grapes and birds of prey

Znamenka Street, house 8/13, building 1

At the corner of Znamenka and Starovagankovsky Lane there is a house in the Art Nouveau style, which was building at once by two famous architects of their time. In 1909, the spouses Shamshins ordered the project of a tenement building to Nikolai Blagoveshchensky. The customers liked the project, but the decor seemed boring, and they applied to Fyodor Shechtel. Having retained the volume and layout of the Blagoveshchensky, he completely changed the design of the house. Today, this building is considered one of his best creations.

Shechtel decorated the house with a corner semicircular bay window in the form of a turret. It starts from the second floor, as if leaning on a semi-column located below. The capital of the column is carved in the form of burdock leaves. The rotunda crowns the bay window. The semicircular windows on both facades are combined with the corner bay window. The first two floors of the house are lined with plaster imitating stone, the rest are glazed brick. Under the cornice, a frieze with an ornament in the form of leaves runs.

The decorative design of the house entrance and the canopy over it has been preserved to this day. The entrance is framed by an arch decorated with stucco in the form of grapes. The canopy lower part is decorated with stained glass windows — they depict flowing ribbons. Amber lanterns hang on the sides of the entrance. The handles of the entrance door are decorate with the heads of birds of prey.

By the way, the building was striking not only in appearance, but also in technical innovations: it was one of the first in Moscow equipped with an elevator.

House of Apraksins: tanks and banners

Znamenka Street, house 19

The history of perhaps the most famous building of Znamenka begins at the end of the XVII century, when a manor was built here by the General Stepan Apraksin order. The author of the project, presumably, was the famous Italian architect Francesco Camporesi, or Franz Ivanovich, as he was called in Russia. It is believed that Camporesi, having arrived in Russia in 1782, was engaged in construction in Moscow, but his works have almost not been preserved.

During the War of 1812, the building was occupied by the French quartermaster headquarters. The house was occupied by Count Pierre Daru and his cousin, the young Marie-Henri Bayle, later known as the writer Stendhal. Bayle mentions this mansion in his diary entries, calling it the Apraksin palace. Here he watched the fire that engulfed Moscow, and also suffered from a sudden severe toothache.

Since 1814, the troupe of the Imperial Moscow Theater began to perform in the building. Comedies by Denis Fonvizin, Ivan Krylov and Jean-Baptiste Moliere were staged here. The theater was popular with Muscovites, despite the fact that in the summer it was stuffy in the cramped auditorium. Later, it moved to the nearby Pashkov’s house, and French and Italian troupes, as well as serf actors, performed in the building on Znamenka for a long time. The theater productions were attended by Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Herzen (his memories of this can be found in The Past and Thoughts), theater critic Vasily Yakovlev and other famous people of the era.

After Apraksin's death, the Alexandrinsky Orphan Institute was here. The manor was remodeled in the classicism style. A double-headed eagle appeared on the pediment, and the side facade was decorated with a composition with the figure of the goddess Minerva, made by Ivan Vitali. In the middle of the XIX century, the institute was transformed into the Alexandrinsky Cadet Corps, and later into the Alexandrovskoye Military School. During the revolution of 1917, it was one of the centers of concentration of Junkers who resisted the Bolsheviks.

After the revolution, the Revolutionary Military Council was located here, then the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. In 1944, the building was reconstructed according to the project of architects Mikhail Posokhin and Ashot Mndoyants. The house was completed to five floors, the facade was decorated with a 12-column portico. It was decorated with images of flags, tanks and the symbol of Soviet power — the coat of arms of the USSR (the sickle and hammer on the globe of the Earth are framed by wheat ears, the rising sun is located below, and a five-pointed star crowns the composition). During the Great Patriotic War, Marshal Georgy Zhukov worked in the building.



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