The street is like an exhibition. Naryshkin Baroque and Viennese Art Nouveau on Petrovka

October 23
Culture

One of the oldest streets in Moscow — Petrovka — runs from Theater Square to the Hermitage Garden, where it turns into Karetny Ryad Street. Petrovka received its name in honor of the Vysoko-Petrovsky Monastery for men back in the XVII century, and since then the name has never changed. The fact is that there was a road along the street from the Trinity Gate of the Kremlin towards the village of Vysokoye, which was located on the high bank of the Neglinnaya River.

Cannon and blacksmith slobodas adjoined the street, and tablecloth workers (weavers) also settled here. In the second half of the XVIII century, manor houses of the nobility started to appear on Petrovka. And in the XIX century it became one of the main shopping streets of the city: clothes and luxury goods were sold here. The writer Pyotr Boborykin called Petrovka ‘Moscow Paris’. The first traffic light in Moscow was installed here — at the intersection with Kuznetsky Most Street.

Petrovsky Passage: Abrikosov's sweets and airships

Petrovka Street, house 10

The Art Nouveau arcade appeared on Petrovka in 1906. It was built at the expense of Vera Firsanova, the owner of 23 houses and famous Sandunov baths. Initially, the passage was called Firsanovsky.

The same architects who built the baths for Firsanova — Sergey Kalugin and Boris Freudenberg — worked on the project of the building. The construction of the passage cost one and a half million rubles — a colossal amount at that time.

The three-storey building runs from Petrovka to Neglinnaya Street and has two facades. In the center there are arched passages, which are decorated with columns and figures of lions. In addition, on the facades there are mascarons (stucco molding in the form of women's heads) and images of katsudei — the rod of the god Mercury, the patron of trade. Both lines of the passage are covered with semi-cylindrical metal arches with glazing, which adds more light to the interior space. The same design was used earlier in the construction of the Upper Shopping malls (now GUM is located there).

More than 50 pavilions of Russian and foreign brands were located in the passage. Some merchants were suppliers to the Imperial Court. People went to the passage for corsets and umbrellas from Matilda Barish, sweets from Abrikosov, ties from Louis Kreutzer and many others. In the evening, the building shone with electric lights.

After the revolution, there was a cinema, a sewing factory, and an industrial exhibition of the Supreme Council of the National Economy. At the same time, the passage was renamed Petrovsky. In 1921, a ‘Worker’ bas-relief by sculptor Matvey Manizer was mounted in the facade wall from the Petrovka side. In the days of NEP, there was an auction hall in the building, which is described in the ‘Twelve Chairs’ book by Ilya Ilf and Evgeny Petrov. In the 1930s there was a ‘Dirizhablstroy’ trust, where the famous Italian design engineer Umberto Nobile worked.

The Main House of the Gubins manor: the creation of Matvey Kazakov

Petrovka Street, house 25, building 1

The manor in the classicism style was built in 1799 according to the project of Matvey Kazakov. The house belonged to the Ural manufacturer Mikhail Gubin.

A distinctive feature of the manor was the front entrance, which Kazakov placed on the side of the rear facade. It is believed that this was done so that the noise of carriages and balls would not interfere with the monks of the Vysoko-Petrovsky Monastery, located opposite the house. A garden was laid out behind the building, on which the windows of the great hall looked.

After the fire of 1812, the manor was badly damaged. It is believed that it was restored according to the project of Osip Bove. The center of the main facade is decorated with a portico with Corinthian columns. The lower part is finished with rust. The side buildings are marked with ionic pilasters and bas-reliefs on a blue background. They depict women in ancient Greek tunics and putti (little boys).

Since the middle of the XIX century, the premises of the house were rented out. In 1871, the Kreyman Gymnasium moved here, and in 1904, the V.V. Pototskaya Women's Gymnasium. Later, Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov's choral singing classes were located here. Dmitry Karelin's photo studio also worked here — Anton Chekhov was photographed in it. Today the building houses the Moscow Museum of Modern Art.

Naryshkin’s Palaty and the Vysoko-Petrovsky Monastery Cells

Petrovka Street, house 28, building 5 and building 6

The palaty (type of old Russian residential stone building) were built in 1690 on the site of the Naryshkin manor. This is one of the oldest buildings in Moscow. Today you can see a preserved fragment of the underground part of the palaty’s wall — it is placed under glass.

The grandfather of Peter I, Kirill Naryshkin, donated his lands to the Vysoko-Petrovsky Monastery for the construction of brethren's cells. The palaty architecture corresponded to the general idea of the monastery ensemble. The two-storey elongated red brick building in the Naryshkin Baroque style has long been considered the longest in Moscow.

The monks' cells were located on the upper floors of the building. The lower floors housed warehouses, closets, a monastery hospital and a bakery. In 1876, the ground floor was adapted for retail premises, for which nine large window openings were made in the facade. By the end of the XIX century, almost all the premises of the building were rented out, so a three-storey building was attached to the northern facade for the monastic brethren residence. At the beginning of the XX century, the first floor of the former monastic brethren building was occupied by apartments, on the ground floor there was a bakery, a tea shop, a hat workshop, a dye shop. After the revolution, communal apartments were organized there and shops were opened.

In the 1950s, the palaty were restored according to the project of Dmitry Dedushenko. The window openings facing Petrovka were built in. Until the early 1990s, Dedushenko was engaged in recreating the original appearance of this landmark building. Since 1971, the building has housed the State Literary Museum, and only in 1994 it was handed over to the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church.

A.S. Khomyakov’s tenement building: Viennese Art Nouveau

Petrovka Street, house 3, building 2

At the intersection of Petrovka with Kuznetsky Most Street there is a house built in a rare Viennese Art Nouveau style for Moscow.

The tenement building was built in 1900 according to the project of the architect Illarion Ivanov-Shitz on the place of a wooden building. It belonged to Alexey Khomyakov. Some of the premises were rented out to trading firms, and the others were occupied by apartments. A bank, the ‘Muir and Meriliz’ furniture store, a bookstore of Ilya Glazunov and other enterprises worked in the building.

The facades of the building are decorated with moldings in the form of plant ornaments and lion heads. Above the second floor, a frieze with a Greek meander ornament runs along the perimeter of the house. The corner part of the building is accentuated by a bay window, which at the level of the first floor is made in the form of a semi-rotunda with columns. It is crowned by a balcony on the second floor, decorated with mascarons (stucco in the form of women's heads). In 1931, two storeys were added to the house.

In Soviet times, the building housed the Tekstilimport Trust, and later the Ministry of the River Fleet of the RSFSR. Eldar Ryazanov's movie ‘Office Romance’ was filmed in the house — according to the plot, a Statistical Institution was located here. Currently, most of the building is occupied by the Federal Agency for Maritime and River Transport.

Tenement building of I.I. Vorontsova - I.G. Evdokimov - Z.I. Shorina: house with putti

Kuznetsky Most Street, house 7 (corner of Petrovka and Kuznetsky Most Streets)

A two-storey house decorated with figurines in the form of putti runs between Petrovka and Neglinnaya Street. The history of the building dates back to the XVIII century — it was built for the French merchant Duclos.

The building was built in the classicism style and had a high terrace that protected the Neglinka River from flooding. Then the facade was decorated with an eight-columned Corinthian portico. The house housed a hotel, which changed its name at different times: ‘Leipzig, ‘Shora, ‘Russia’, ‘France’. On the ground floor, there were shops: bookstore, watch, tobacco.

In 1881, the building was rebuilt according to the project of August Weber: it was decorated with high attic (decorative walls above the cornice) with stucco and putti figures. Because of these figurines, the house was called ‘the house with putti’. Later, it was rebuilt twice more, the last time according to the project of Leonid Vesnin and Sergey Titov.

At the time of the NEP, the ‘Moskovsky Rabochiy’ publishing house, which published the ‘Oktyabr’ magazine, was located in the building. In 1927, Mikhail Sholokhov brought his manuscript of the ‘The Quiet Don’ novel here. After that, the first two books were published in the magazine in parts.

Source: mos.ru

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