The street is like an exhibition. Looking for signs of Vienna and Ancient Rome on Ilyinka

September 18

A weekend walk can become an excursion through the most interesting open-air exhibition - Moscow streets with history. Ilyinka, one of the oldest streets in the city, connects Red Square with Ilyinskiye Gate Square. This street has always been a place of lively trade, and by the end of the XIX century it also became the center of Moscow's business life. The history and architectural features of six business and commercial buildings on Ilyinka are in the article.

Tenement Building of the Moscow Merchant Bank: Vienna in the Heart of Moscow

Ilyinka, house 14/2, building 1

One look at this house on the corner of Ilyinka and the Old Square — and you are transported to the capital of Austria. Built on the model of Viennese banks, the house is an excellent example of profitable development in Moscow at the end of the XIX century. The architectural style of the building is pseudo-baroque. The facades are decorated with magnificent stucco molding, pilasters (this is the name of a flat vertical projection of rectangular cross-section similar to a column) with complex capitals, stucco decorative elements in the form of scrolls (cartouches) and curls (volutes) are located above the windows.

The tenement building consists of two buildings - the one facing Ilyinka was built in the first third of the XIX century, and the one facing the Staraya Square - in the second half of the same century. Then the buildings looked different - they got their usual look in 1894, when the new owner of the site - the Moscow Merchant Bank - carried out a complete reconstruction designed by architect Boris Freudenberg. By the way, Freudenberg is the author of several iconic buildings on Ilyinka: he also built the Moscow Merchant Bank and the Moscow Naidenov Commercial Bank.

In the first half of the XIX century, the artist Alexander Yastrebilov, one of the founders of the creative circle Natural Class, later transformed into the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, lived and worked in this house.

The Complex of Tenement Buildings of the Northern Insurance Company: Clock and Rotunda

Ilyinka, house 21

The Northern Insurance Company appeared in 1872 in St. Petersburg, and then moved to Moscow, where it settled in the Orlov-Davydov’s house on Nikolskaya Street. In 1900, the company purchased a plot on the Novaya Square for the tenement buildings construction.

The architectural contest was held by the Moscow Archaeological Society, whose employees were very worried about the safety of the Kitaygorodskaya wall, located very close (the medieval fortress structure was not preserved, it was demolished in 1934). More than 20 projects participated in the contest, Ivan Rehrberg, Marian Peretyatkovich, Vyacheslav Oltarzhevsky and Ilya Golosov became the winners. The contest commission evaluated the rational use of the site and innovation: several buildings were united by a complex system of passages and courtyards.

The building attracts attention with the proximity of a clock tower and a powerful neoclassical rotunda on the corner facing Ilyinka. The dome of the rotunda is surrounded by semicircular and rectangular windows. Below there is a cornice on vertical pilasters. If you give a second glance, you can see niches with kneeling male and female figures above these pilasters.

Moscow Stock Exchange: After the Fashion of a Roman Temple

Ilyinka, house 6/1

Until 1839, the so-called spontaneous exchange of Moscow merchants traditionally gathered near the old Gostiny Dvor in Khrustalny Lane. In 1828, Governor-General Dmitry Golitsyn received a request from them to establish an exchange in the city. 11 years later, the building was built, however, initially, the bidding began in the old-fashioned way in the fresh air - on the terrace provided by the architect Mikhail Bykovsky. The construction was financed by the merchants themselves, but Emperor Nicholas I contributed as well.

In the 1860s, they decided to rebuild and expand the building, for which they bought an adjacent land plot. The author of the new project was the master of eclecticism Alexander Kaminsky. He took a classical Roman temple as a model: the facade with a portico is decorated with stucco, on the pediment there is a bas-relief depicting the god of commerce Mercury (the author of the bas-relief is Alexander Opekushin). The side facade facing Rybny Lane retains the features of the old exchange building. It was originally a two-story building, the second floor was built in 1925 under supervision of architect Ivan Kuznetsov.

The House of the ARKOS Joint-Stock Company: the Pearl of Constructivism

Ilyinka, house 11/10, building 1

This laconic building combines style and rationality. On the facade facing Ilyinka, there are three lines of bay windows with full glazing. The attic (brow above the upper cornice) of a stepped shape also attracts attention. In other respect, it is a fairly minimalistic building in the best traditions of constructivism.

The house was built in 1927-1928 for a rather unusual organization for the USSR. Joint-stock trading company ARKOS was established by the Soviet cooperative delegation in London and was engaged in export and import in favor of the Soviet Union.

The winner of the contest was the project of Vladimir Mayat, in the recent past the favorite architect of the merchants Ryabushinsky and Morozov. The building basement was occupied by a garage, the ground and the first floors were assigned to banks and shops, the second and third - office premises, the fourth and fifth - hotel rooms. Later, the ARKOS House became a model for many administrative buildings of the USSR.

The Morozovs: A merchant dynasty The history of Stanislavsky’s merchant dynasty

Tenement Building of the Trinity Metochion: from ancient chambers to pseudo-Russian style

Ilyinka, house 5

It's hard to believe, but this five-story house was the tallest residential building in Moscow until 1905. Its history spans several centuries and two total reconstructions.

In the XVI century, the plot at the corner of Ilyinka and Birzhevaya Square was occupied by a two-story stoned metochion of Trinity-Sergius Lavra. In the monastery's papers, it was listed as a Stryapchesky's house - visitant officers in charge of the czar's household (officials) and monks stayed here. In addition to rooms for rent, the house housed brokerage offices, shops, coffee shops, and inns.

At the end of the XVIII century, the entire metochion was handed over to the merchant Andrey Sysalin, who built a new complex of buildings in the classical style instead of the dilapidated palatys. At the beginning of the XIX century, Alexander Shiryaev's bookstore, cloth, hat and manufactory stores, as well as the Trinity tavern, known throughout Moscow, where the best piglets and famous rastegai were served, were housed here.

The tenement building, that we see on this site today, appeared after reconstruction in 1874-1876. In this place, architect Pyotr Skomoroshenko created a five-story tenement building in the Pseudo-Russian style. The walls are decorated with stucco and carved platbands, the windows of the third floor are decorated with pointed arches and pilasters. The main focus of the composition is a six-story corner tower with a belvedere. The building housed shops and offices, the Novo-Troitskaya Hotel. The tavern was preserved, but shifted to the basement.

After 1917, the building was occupied by institutions (including a bank) and communal apartments.

Old Gostiny Dvor: Antique Motifs

Ilyinka, house 4

The Old Gostiny Dvor is an unique structure. Its total area is more than 80 thousand square meters. Dozens of stucco columns, classical vaults, arches -all this reminds of the traditions of Palladianism, an important style trend in Russian classical architecture of the time of Catherine II. Gostiny Dvor was first mentioned in the book of the XVI century Notes on Muscovite Affairs by the Austrian ambassador Sigismund von Herberstein. At that time, it looked far otherwise.

"Not far from the fortress there is a large, walled-in house called the courtyard of the misters merchants, in which the merchants live and store their goods," it says in the book.

In the 1640s, stone buildings appeared here, divided into four courtyards: Old, New, Fish and Salt. By the end of the XVIII century, the courtyard dilapidated and partially collapsed. The new project was prepared by the architect Giacomo Quarenghi. According to his idea, the building was supposed to occupy an entire block within the limits of Ilyinka and Varvarka. The architect lived in St. Petersburg and, guided by the terrain plan, did not take into account the critical slope. Architects Ivan Selekhov and Semyon Karin corrected the project, preserving the original idea.

The fire of 1812 spread exactly from Gostiny Dvor. A few years later, restoration work began under supervision of Osip Bove. In 1838, the complex was named the Old Gostiny Dvor, because a new one appeared nearby in Rybny Lane. At the beginning of the XX century, the architect Karl Gippius rebuilt the middle part of the complex in Chrustalny Lane in the neoclassical style with bright colored mosaics.

At the end of the XX - beginning of the XXI century, the Gostiny Dvor was reconstructed. The courtyard was paved with granite and covered with a glass dome, attic floors were built over.


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