The street is like an exhibition. Flying comet and little lions of Vozdvizhenka street decor

November 8
Culture

One of the oldest streets in Moscow, Vozdvizhenka, was named under Ivan the Terrible after the Exaltation of the Holy Cross Monastery, which was abolished in 1814. During the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the courtyards of the Moscow nobility were here: the boyars Vasily Streshnev, Boris Morozov, Ivan Miloslavsky. The street was badly damaged by the fire of 1812, after the Patriotic War Vozdvizhenka street was expanded and a number of new stone buildings were erected on it. In the second half of the 19th century, the street was paved with cobblestones, and after 1917 it was replaced by asphalt.

In Soviet times, the street first bore the name of the Comintern, and later - Mikhail Kalinin. The historical name returned to Vozdvizhenka street in the 1990s.

Pashkov house: a masterpiece of classicism

Vozdvizhenka street, 3/5, building 1

One of the most beautiful buildings on Vozdvizhenka street is a little away from it — closer to Znamenka and Mokhovaya streets. However, it is impossible not to notice it: Pashkov house, 18th century manor house, presumably built according to the project of Vasily Bazhenov, dominate area from the Vagankovsky Hill. Its elevated location once made it the first secular building overlooking Kremlin downhill.

The building was built according to the three-part principle typical of classicism. The central building with a gazebo (a pinnacle on the roof) is combined with the side wings by one-story galleries and has two main facades: the first, front facade, palatial, overlooks Mokhovaya Street, and the second, rear yard, into Starovagankovsky Lane. The facades are similar, but the rear yard facade has a more comfortable look.

The palatial façade is decorated with three four-column porticos uniting two floors. All three porticos are absolutely identical, except for the order: the Corinthian order is used in the columns of the central building (capitals in the form of baskets with acanthus leaves), and in the columns of the side wings — the Ionic order (capitals in the form of rolls). The roof of the central building is framed by a balustrade; statues are located on the sides of the four-column portico.

The manor house was built in 1784–1786 for Pyotr Pashkov, lieutenant captain of the Semyonovsky Life Guards regiment, son of the orderly Peter I. During the Patriotic War of 1812, the building was badly damaged: a wooden gazebo and a sculptural group were destroyed. The restoration of the manor house was carried out by the architect Osip Bove. In 1843, the Moscow Noble Institute was located here, and in 1861 — the library and repository of the collection of the Rumyantsev Museum. After the October Revolution, only the museum's library was left in the building, which later became the basis for the library named after V.I. Lenin (Russian State Library). After the opening of the main building of the library, the department of rare manuscripts remained in the Pashkov house.

Library named after V.I. Lenin: the temple of science

Vozdvizhenka street, 3/5, buildings 2-5

The construction of the main building of the library, designed by architects Vladimir Gelfreich and Vladimir Shchuko, began in 1929. One of the requirements for the architects was to organically fit the building into the existing development - Pashkov house, Manege, building of Moscow University on Mokhovaya. Majestic and monumental, it combined the architectural principles of different styles: its asymmetry came from constructivism, colonnade and restraint of decor — from neoclassicism.

The entrance is decorated with a portico with massive black granite columns. They support a frieze with bas-reliefs depicting figures of workers and peasants. Such bas-reliefs remind that the Soviet rule introduced the universal education. From the side of Mokhovaya Street, the facade is decorated with bronze bas-reliefs of people of science and art, created by sculptors Nadezhda Krandievskaya and Sergei Evseev and depicting Archimedes, Nikolai Copernicus, Alexander Pushkin and others. On the parapet there is a sculptural row "Socialist Labor and Knowledge" — 22 three-meter figures, including statues of a student, worker, sculptor, scientist, builder and other representatives of the Soviet era. They were created by the monumental sculptors Vera Mukhina, Matvey Manizer, Elena Yanson-Manizer and Vsevolod Lishev.

The library building is majestic not only from the outside. Reading Room No. 3, opened in 1958, is the largest in Europe - it has 464 places. Designed in the style of a ceremonial palace hall, it embodies the idea of ​​a temple of science. In 2012–2018, a large-scale scientific restoration took place in the hall: a wooden gallery, stairs, portals, furniture, artistic parquet, three-tiered brass chandeliers, picturesque panel "Friendship of Peoples", 16 plaster busts of public and cultural figures, as well as a Lenin bronze sculpture were restored. In 2018, the reading room became a laureate of the Moscow Government competition “Moscow restoration” in the category “High quality of repair and restoration work”.

Talyzin House: from Empire to neoclassicism

Vozdvizhenka street, 5/25, building 1

The building in which the State Museum of Architecture named after A.V. Shchusev was probably built according to the project of Matvey Kazakov — its facade is included in his famous Architectural Albums. However, it is difficult to recognize him in the drawing: initially the house did not look like it does today. It was a three-story building with two wings, erected in 1787 for retired privy councilor Alexander Talyzin.

In 1805, the manor house was changed for the first time: by order of the new owner, merchant Mikhail Ustinov, two-storey passages were made between the main house and the wings, and the facade was decorated in the Empire style. Under the Ustinovs, the mansion became one of the most popular cultural salons in Moscow; Denis Davydov and Alexander Pushkin attended musical evenings.

In 1845, the building was purchased by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Empire, which transferred it to the Moscow District Treasury and the Moscow treasury chamber. By the end of the 19th century, a third floor was added to the side parts of the building — in this form, the house has survived to this day. The building is a monument of neoclassicism: it is symmetrical; the central part of both facades is decorated with pilasters (vertical corbels of rectangular cross-section) with Corinthian capitals and triangular pediments (the tops of the facade of the building).

In 1920, the secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party moved in here — the mansion housed the offices of Joseph Stalin and his secretaries. In the 1930s, the building housed a dormitory, later communal apartments. The State Museum of Architecture is located in the building after the Great Patriotic War.

The main house of the city manor of Ya.P. Shakhovsky - I.I. Krause - Osipovskikhs: griffin and lion

Vozdvizhenka street, 18/9

This three-storey house appeared on Vozdvizhenka street in 1783. It was designed by an unknown architect for Prince Yakov Shakhovsky, Russia's third prosecutor general. In 1842, the estate was acquired by the doctor and botanist Hieronymus Krause. Ten years later, the architect Nikolai Kozlovsky redesigned the facade of the building in the Rococo style: semicircular casings, decorated with stucco moldings in the form of garlands, shells, rolls and small lion heads, appeared above the windows of the second floor.

In 1868, the manor house was bought by another well-known doctor, Dimitri Osipovsky, the chief doctor of the Moscow Mariinsky Hospital. Ten years later, when he received the nobility, his family coat of arms appeared on the pediment: a griffin and a lion are holding a shield, which depicts a two-story cogwheel tower, six-pointed stars, a comet and a month. The shield is crowned with a noble crowned helmet with ostrich feathers.

From 1900 to 1917, the niece of Osipov's wife, Elizaveta Varenikova, lived in the house. She was familiar with Anton Chekhov — her family lived next door to the writer in Melikhovo. There is an opinion that the prototypes of some of Chekhov's stories ("Gooseberry", "Three Years", "Neighbors") are Elizaveta Varenikova and her relatives.

The main house of the manor of V.A. Morozova: winged lions

Vozdvizhenka street 14, building 1

It is one of the first large buildings of famous architect Roman Klein. The building is designed in neoclassical style. The facade is symmetrical, side risalits (protruding parts of the building) are decorated with small porticos. One of the main features of the estate is winged lions sitting on columns of the Corinthian order. A frieze with stucco in the form of heraldic lilies — symbol of royal power crosses the central part of the facade.

The house was built in 1886-1888 for the patron of the arts Varvara Morozova. In 1891, it was supplemented by two annexes designed by Viktor Mazyrin, he later erected a mansion next door for Morozova's son Arseny. The architectural tastes of mother and son were very different: Varvara Morozova did not like the mansion, inspired by the palace architecture of the Portuguese Sintra, at all.

Writers and artists gathered in the house of Varvara Morozova: Anton Chekhov, Alexander Blok, Valentin Serov, Vasily Surikov and others. There were also frequent lectures on politics. After the October Revolution of 1917, the building housed the Institute of Social Hygiene and the International Agrarian Institute under the Peasant International.

Source: mos.ru

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