The cultural heritage of Tyutchev’s childhood home on Armyansky Pereulok will be maintained

May 26
Culture

The Department of Cultural Heritage has approved the preservation and protection of the mansion of the Gagarin – Tyutchev estate on 11 Armyansky Pereulok (Bld. 2). Experts confirmed that the architectural appearance, the building materials and the location of the building on the city plan are of cultural value and cannot be changed.

The mansion was built in the early 1700s on the site of white-stone chambers of from late 16th - early 17th centuries. To this day, a cellar with vaulted ceilings from the old chambers can be seen. It is assumed that initially it was a sub-basement (lower floor) of the house, while the second floor was made of wood. Later it was changed to stone.

In the 1790s, the estate was rebuilt under a project by famous architect Matvei Kazakov. Today, the classicism-style three-story house is a cultural heritage site of federal importance. In addition to the architecture, it also has value as a memorial. Poet Fyodor Tyutchev spent his childhood and youth here. In addition, the building is considered the envisioned building for the 2nd Social Protection House in the novel "The Golden Calf" by Ilf and Petrov.

“The Gagarin-Tyutchev mansion plays an important role in the composition and planning of Armyansky Pereulok. Experts have noted the uniqueness of the architectural and the artistic appearance of the building facades, designed in the classical style of the late 18th century. In addition, the cultural value of the interior design was also recognised, where the stucco decoration of the walls and ceilings, pilasters and columns, as well as corner stoves and a fireplace have survived to this day,” said Alexei Yemelyanov, Head of the Department of Cultural Heritage.

Building preservation includes the capital walls and partitions of the 17th-18th centuries, and the basement with arched vaults and adjacent outbuildings. The architectural value is represented by the roof with dormer windows, the side risaltis, and the Doric colonnade supporting the balcony on the second floor, the balustrade of the balcony with parapet pillars, arched niches with stucco moldings in the lunettes above the windows, dripstones, interfloor molding eaves, and the final cornice with a smooth frieze and a dormer. Also, the location, size and shape of the windows and doors, the materials and the finish of the facade walls are of great importance. In addition, experts confirmed the cultural value of the stairs and inter-level steps in the interior of the house – the location, design, materials and decoration are to be preserved.

As the department head noted, any restoration work on the mansion must be carried out under the approval of the Department of Cultural Heritage.

The history of the Gagarin-Tyutchev estate in the 18th-19th centuries

 The owner of the estate in the second half of the 17th century is considered to be boyar Ivan Miloslavsky, who was close to Tsar Fyodor Alekseyevich. Subsequently, the owners of the estate repeatedly changed. At various times, it was owned by the princes Volkonskys, the counts Dmitriyevs-Mamonovs and the nobles Dashkovs. In 1790, the estate was transferred to Prince Ivan Gagarin, who belonged to the ancient and famous Prince Gagarin family. He was a Navy fleet captain and participated in the Battle of Cesme. After retiring, he settled in Moscow, became close to many Masons, including famous publisher and philosopher Nikolai Novikov, and he was a member of one of the Moscow Mason lodges.

When Gagarin lived in the estate, the manor house on Armyansky Pereulok was rebuilt to its current classic appearance. Architect Matvei Kazakov oversaw the estate reconstruction project. He expanded the house and built a third floor, almost without affecting the main core of the building – or the old chambers. Kazakov preserved the main composition of the house with the two risaltis or extended sections on the main facade. Between the risaltis, he built a balcony on top of the columns, giving the mansion a modest and elegant appearance. The house’s interiors were simply and elegantly decorated.

The family of famous writer Fyodor Tyutchev bought the estate from the heirs of Prince Gagarin in 1810. Tyutchev lived in his parents' house until 1822. It is noteworthy that the estate was not affected by the big city fire of 1812. According to legend, Armyansky Pereulok and its surroundings survived the fire thanks to the intercession of Napoleon’s bodyguard, Mameluke Rustam, an Armenian by origin, whose soldiers guarded the local estates during the fire.

According to historians, future Decembrists, Dmitry Zavalishin and Ivan Yakushin, who were relatives of the Tyutchevs, often visited the mansion. In 1831, Tyutchev’s parents sold the house to the Moscow guardianship of the poor clergy. At the expense of well-known philanthropist Dmitry Gorikhvostov, a “widow's house” was opened here, where widows and daughters of clergy lived.

In the 1920s, the building housed the Nekrasov House of Social Protection. It was envisioned for the 2nd House of Social Protection (Sobes House) in the novel “The Golden Calf” by Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov. In the Soviet era, various institutions were located in the building. The building itself was not rebuilt; it kept its original historical appearance. Today, the Gagarin-Tyutchev estate mansion is the home to the Russian Children's Fund

Fyodor Tyutchev (1803-1873) – Russian poet, diplomat, corresponding member of the Imperial St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, secret adviser. Tyutchev’s poetic legacy includes over 300 lyric poems, among them “Spring Thunderstorm” (1828), “Summer Evening” (1829), “Winter is Not in Vain Angry” (1836) and others. In addition to the lyrics, more than 1,300 letters by Tyutchev have survived to our day.

Matvei Kazakov (1738–1812) – Moscow architect, one of the founders of classicism in Russian architecture. Many buildings were erected in the capital under his projects. Among them are the Petrovsky Palace (40 Leningradsky Prospekt), the governor-general's house – now Moscow City Hall (13 Tverskaya Street), the Senate Palace in the Moscow Kremlin and the New Catherine Hospital (15 Strastnoi Boulevard).

The preservation and restoration of architectural monuments in Moscow is the most important part of the work of the Department of Cultural Heritage. Many landmarks gain new life, being adapted for modern use while maintaining the historical appearance of the capital. Since 2011, more than 1,400 landmarks of cultural heritage have been restored in the city, including 203 of them in 2019.

Source: mos.ru

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