Street like an exhibition. Looking for house-ships on Maroseyka and in its surroundings

December 25, 2021
Culture

In the 15th century, in the vicinity of Maroseyka street, there were tsar gardens, and on site of the street there was a road to Preobrazhenskoe and Izmailovo settlements. The street got its name from the Little Russian metochion — in the 17th century it was located at the corner with Bolshoi Zlatoustinsky lane. In the 18th century, the princes Baryatinskys and Saltykovs lived on Maroseyka street, as well as the war chief Count Pyotr Rumyantsev. At the same time, in the present Armyanskiy Lane settled a merchant dynasty of the Lazarevs — patrons of the arts, who organized the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages here in 1815.

Poultry Union (Ptitsevodsoyuz) Building

Maroseyka street, 3/13, building 3

In the 18th century, on site of this constructivist house, there was a metochion of the Nikolo-Ugreshsky monastery. A chapel with a hotel and a tavern were located in two stone buildings. At the end of the next century, dilapidated buildings were demolished and two-floor buildings were erected. On the basis of the foundations and walls of these houses in 1928–1929, a four-floor building of the Ptitsevodsoyuz administration was built according to the project of the architect Vladimir Tsvetaev.

In the appearance of the building, the architect embodied the theme of the house-ship, which was popular in those years: the corner part is raised and resembles a captain's bridge. The rounded corner of the house with long balconies has a cylindrical superstructure with high windows. A vertical stained-glass window, behind which the main staircase is hidden, rises from the side of Lubyansky passage. The house has elements characteristic of constructivism: flat roof and large window openings.

At that time, the building has name of the House of Trusts: in addition to the Ptitsevodsoyuz, it housed Soyuzkrup, Svinovodsoyuz, Lnocenter, Stankotrest and other institutions. In 1935, the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR was located here, and in 1938 — the office of the Central Committee of the Komsomol (All-Union Leninist Communist Youth Union, or Komsomol). Since 1992, the building was occupied by the Russian Youth Union.

The city manor house of V. Razumovskaya V. Popova Eremeevs

Maroseyka street, 2

Along the street from the Ptitsevodsoyuz building, we found with surprise the familiar motives in the appearance of the manor house in the style of classicism. Its corner rotunda served as the inspiration for the author of the constructivist building. The rotunda is decorated with semi-columns and a balcony on the second floor. Two blocks are symmetrically located on either side of it. Since the building is on a small hill, one of the block has three floors, and the other — four.

Originally on site of the manor house was the property of the architect Karl Blank. In 1779, Varvara Razumovskaya bought the plot and began the building of palace on site of the main house. It was completed in 1796.

During the fire of 1812, the building was not damaged — the governor of Moscow, appointed by Napoleon, Marshal Edouard Adolphe Mortier, sojourned in the manor house, and therefore it was especially carefully guarded. Later in the same century, the architect Vasily Balashov erected an outbuilding, which was later rebuilt into a tenement house.

In 1890, the house was rebuilt by the architect Adolf Knabe, and four years later, retail premises were opened on the ground floor. At the beginning of the 20th century, the building housed a popular tavern. In 1975, the lobby of the Kitay-Gorod metro station was built into the house.

Tenement house of V.K. and P.K. Mikini

Armyanskiy lane, 1/8, building 1

Another house-ship in the Maroseyka area appeared in 1905. To see it, you need to turn from Maroseyka street to Armyanskiy lane and walk along it almost to the intersection with Krivokolenny lane.

The "bow" of this ship — a corner bay window with a balcony and a turret — joins two buildings: the first, built along the Armyanskiy lane in 1901 (architect Vladimir Vlastov), and the second, built along the Krivokolenny lane in 1905 (architect Pyotr Mikini).

The balcony is decorated with a bas-relief and columns, and the turret is decorated with a spire. The facades has bay windows, the arched windows on the first floor are crowned with bas-reliefs in the form of lion heads. The canopy of one of the entrances is decorated with floral Art Nouveau ornaments, and two brackets resemble swans. Above the entrance is a shell with a female mascaron.

The tenement building was built on site of the manor house of the parents of the poet Fyodor Tyutchev, which was later owned by the writers Mikhail Katkov and Pavel Leontyev. They organized the editorial offices of the Russkiy Vestnik magazine and the Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper in the manor house. Writers Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Sergei Aksakov, Ivan Goncharov often visited it.

The architect Pyotr Mikini, the philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev, and the chemist Sergei Medvedev lived in the house, which appeared on site of the manor house at the beginning of the 20th century.

Little Russian metochion

Maroseyka street, 11/4, building 1

This architectural ensemble arose in the 17th century on site of a quarter inhabited by foreigners. The stone palace was built instead of the two courtyards of dyak (chief clerk) Andrei Nemirov that stood here. The tsar decree of 1670 announced: "Cossacks and bourgeois of Little Russian cities coming to Moscow for all their business and with goods, must be registered in the Little Russian prikaz and residence in the Little Russian courtyard."

The palace existed in their original form until the middle of the 18th century, later the building was rebuilt many times. It was decorated in Empire style as a result of rebuilding in 1825-1829. In 1872, the architect Artemy Ober built a four-floor tenement building on site of the palace, which was completed by Joseph Zalessky. On the ground floor there were retail premises, including the famous Dutfoi store. It sold dining and perfume glassware.

The Little Russian metochion also includes the Naryshkins — Raguzinsky house. The building was erected next to the palace by Vasily Naryshkin in the 1690s. The facade was an example of the Naryshkin Baroque. In 1702, the new owner of the house, Raguzinsky, added the third floor, and in 1825 almost all the stucco was removed from the facade. Until 1912, the building housed the Elizabethan women's gymnasium.

In 2020, the restoration of the Little Russian metochion was completed, which was awarded with the Moscow Restoration 2021 prize on 14 December 2021. In the course of the work, arched windows and passages were discovered and restored, church paintings of the 19th century, fragments of stove tiles, a casket lined with malachite, and other artefacts were discovered. On the facade of the courtyard, the restorers managed to restore the original appearance of a part of the brick wall — there are three windows on it, decorated with fancy platbands and framed by columns. These elements have been preserved since the time of the first owner of the house, Vasily Naryshkin. In the building itself, on the ground floor, fragments of columns from the same time were found.

Source: mos.ru

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