Owners of the famous Tryokhgorka lived here: Prokhorovs Mansion in the Presnensky district now an architectural landmark

May 18, 2019
Culture

The main building of an urban estate of the Tryokhgornaya Manufactory owners has been listed as a cultural heritage site of regional significance. In 1836, the mansion was built by Yakov, the younger son of Vasily Prokhorov, the founder of a famous weaving factory. Residential one-storey building with an entresol in its centre was built near the factory shops in Tryokhgorny Pereulok.

The mansion acquired it second floor in 1877, after it had been rebuilt by Alexander Popov. At the time, the premises belonged to the Prokhorovskaya Tryokhgornaya Manufactory Association (factory's name under Ivan Prokhorov's management). The entresol floor was transformed into a regular one by adding two-storey stone wings to the wooden building foundation that provided the mansion L-shaped look. An open balustrade with a wide staircase was constructed at its two symmetrical parts junctions (northern and southern one), and the building facades were decorated in classicism style. It was the look that has survived to the present day.

"In addition to its memorial value related to the Prokhorovs, Moscow manufacturers, dynasty, the building has an architectural and art value for the city. Remarkably, the interiors of the mansion have almost completely survived, including the carved marble staircase, painted ceiling plafond, plaster mouldings on the walls and a majolica tile stove. Such a good state of preservation is a very rare case. There are cornices with ornaments and mouldings on the walls and window jambs, ceilings with caissons (honeycomb-shaped recesses), majolica panels and many other unique decorative elements in southern and northern parts of the building. Some of them appeared during the second building reconstruction of 1892 by Roman Klein. The Prokhorovs resided in the mansion until 1918, as long as the Tryokhgornaya Manufactory existed. In Soviet times, it housed the Culture Centre," Alexei Yemelyanov, Head of Moscow Cultural Heritage Department, said.

Alexei also noted that the building facades deserve special attention, especially the southern ones, richly decorated with plaster mouldings. First floor's high rectangular windows are framed with bow-shaped pediments (decorative cornices), based on figured consoles shaped as a female head. Second floor windows also have pediments decorated with floral patterns. Piers are adorned with medallions featuring small cherub reliefs with cornice space between the floors featuring moulded garlands.

Northern building facades are decorated with rustic work (brickwork facing). The triple window of avant-corps (decorative projection) has a curved architrave with first and second floor windows framed with rectangular pediments.

Two centuries of Tryokhgornaya Manufactory

Tryokhgornaya Manufactory is the oldest Moscow enterprise. Merchant Vasily Prokhorov (1755-1815) together with a dyeing master Fyodor Rezanov founded a cotton-printing (weaving) factory. Later he bought his partner's share and became the sole manufactory's owner. The factory owes its name to its location: Tri Gory (Three Mountains) natural boundary on the left bank of the Moskva River dating back to the 15th century.

Factory products had always been in great demand, they repeatedly received prestigious awards at the international fairs in various countries. After Vasily Prokhorov's death, the enterprise came into possession of his sons and grandchildren, philanthropists and honorary residents of Moscow. In the early 1870s, the factory changed its legal status and became a Prokhorovskaya Tryokhgornaya Manufactory Association with its shares owned by the Prokhorov family members. In 1912, Nikolai Prokhorov, the last factory owner, received the title of nobility for merit to Moscow. In 1918, the manufactory was nationalised.

Presently, the premises of the former Tryokhgornaya Manufactory is a landmark venue for creative Moscow youth with workshops, exhibition halls, co-working spaces, clubs and restaurants open in the former factory shops.

The status of cultural heritage site provides state protection to the main building of the Prokhorovs urban estate.  It means that demolition of this mansion is prohibited, and any restoration must be approved and supervised by the Moscow Cultural Heritage Department.

Under state protection

There is an ongoing program in place to preserve and restore Moscow’s architectural landmarks.  The cultural heritage list is regularly updated.   Over the past seven years alone, about 700 monuments have been added.  They include over 370 newly discovered cultural heritage sites and about 330 cultural heritage landmarks of federal and regional significance.

Owners of famous Tryokhgorka lived here: Prokhorovs Mansion in the Presnensky district is now an architectural landmark

The building of the former Filaret Diocesan Women's School Anton Chekhov's sister Maria studied in has been listed as a cultural heritage site. The main building of the urban estate of the early 19th century in Dashkov Pereulok has been listed as a cultural heritage site. This two-storey fenced stone mansion was built in  classicism style as a typical example of Moscow residential development  design of the early 19th century.  The lane owes its name to Andrei Dashkov, Senator and State Councillor, who was one of the mansion's owners.

A building with a pharmacy in Malaya Bronnaya Street has recently been recognised as an architectural landmark. This six-storey neoclassical building was erected in 1913.  It had rented apartments, as well as shops and workshops downstairs.  The room on the first floor more than a century ago housed a pharmacy. Over a century ago, there was a pharmacy on the first floor.

The register of cultural heritage sites of regional importance also includes Kalinovskaya's revenue house  with its asymmetrical facade and firebirds over the windows. The five-storey building was erected in 1911 by architect Ernst-Richard Niernsee in late Art Nouveau style.

Source: mos.ru

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